# What is the Intrinsic Value of a Stock?

The very first thing that comes to mind is the stock price when you are about to buy a certain stock in the stock market. If you want to stock just now, you will have to look for the current price. Remember, the stock price has a market volatility. To play safely and significantly in the stock market, you can look at the intrinsic value of share you want to invest in. There may be a question like what is intrinsic value?

Intrinsic value meaning: You may be wondering now that intrinsic understanding value is difficult but is very simple. An intrinsic value in stock market means the true value of a stock. By referring to the intrinsic value of a stock, you will know whether a certain stock is worth a lot more or less in terms of investments.

Determining the intrinsic value of a stock is useful to go for the best bargains in the stock market. A potential investor who wants to buy stocks or other securities at a discount must use the strategy of intrinsic value.

## Table of Contents

## How is the Intrinsic Value of Stock Calculated?

Here are the following three different models helpful to determine intrinsic value.

### Dividend Discount Models

When determining the intrinsic value of a stock, you need to focus on the cash. You can determine the fundamental value of a security factor in variables concerned with cash which can be dividends and future cash flows, to a great extent by using many models. It is also possible to use the time value of money (TVM). The dividend discount model (DDM) is a widely known model useful to understand the intrinsic value.

Here is the following formula to find out dividend discount models.

Value of stock= EDPS/(CCE−DGR),

Here EDPS stands for Expected dividend per share,

CCE stands for Cost of capital equity, and

DGR stands for Dividend growth rate

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is dividend-based; here, you can think about whether the company is within a steady state. But, again, you can find the growing dividends here in perpetuity.

The dividends mean the amount that a company gives to its shareholders regularly; here, it can create cash flows. Although you can find multiple models, you want to decide which assumptions you would like to go for. Conclusion: Some assumptions are basic and optimistic in the (Gordon Growth Model) GCM. In GCM, there are also other advantages that you can apply when analyzing blue-chip companies.

### Residual Income Models

The residual income model is another way to know the intrinsic value. It is interesting to count how the value of a stock comes out in the valuation method to understand the stock’s intrinsic value. Here, the stock value depends on the earnings per share (EPS) and per-share book value (BVPS). Through this model, you come to know the stock’ intrinsic value. It is important to add its current per-share book value with its discounted residual income to know the stock’s intrinsic value.

Here is the formula to find out the intrinsic value using residual income models.

V0 = BV0+ ∑ RIt/(1+r) t

Here BV0 stands for the equity’s current book value

RIt stands for the company’s Residual income at time t

r stands for the cost of equity

### Discounted Cash Flow Models

If you are looking for the most common valuation way to identify the fundamental value, then you must switch to discounted cash flow models. DCF analysis helps you understand a fair value for a stock, but it will depend on the projected future cash flows.

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) models are different from Residual Income Models (RIM) and Dividend Discount Models (DDM) because the main focus of the DCF model is cash flows. It comes with non-cash expenses on the income statement, but there will be the spending on equipment and assets. The changes in working capital will also be there. The Discounted Cash flow makes the WACC in use in the form of a discount variable to account for the time value of money (TVM).

Here is the formula to find out the stock’s intrinsic value using the discounted cash flow model.

DCF= CF1/(1+r)1 + CF2/(1+r)2 + CF3/(1+r)3 + …CFn/(1+r)n

Here, Fn means Cash flows in the time n,

D means Discount rate.

## Risk Adjusting the Intrinsic Value

The risk of adjusting the cash flow gets influenced by several factors. However, finding the intrinsic value of a stock is considered a combination of art and science. Mentioned below are the two primary ways for the risk to adjust the intrinsic value.

### Discount Rate

In this strategy, an analyst looks to use a company’s weighted average cost of capital. There will be frequent addition of a risk-free rate to the capital’s weighted average cost. It comes with a premium, depending on the market risk compounded by an equity risk premium. The government bond yield is the reason for the risk-free rate. A stock subjected to more volatility in the market can be risky to invest in, and this strategy depends upon it. Therefore, a higher discount rate comes into use, minimizing the estimated future cash flow value.

### Certainty Factor

There will be a certainty factor in each cash flow in this concept. Afterwards, it will get multiplied by the entire net present value (NPV). It is helpful to get investment costs reduced. It is possible to risk-adjust the cash flows, where the risk-free rate gets employed as a discount.

## Challenges With Intrinsic Value

Almost everything comes with challenges, and so with intrinsic value. Although there are many challenges with intrinsic value, being quite subjective is what you need to deal with. There may be a time when you make several assumptions to figure out the intrinsic value. You will get the final net present value after making several assumptions. This final net present value will be subject to changes while making those assumptions.

There are different ways to make such assumptions. The assumption on factors like probability or confidence is completely subjective. Unquestionably, it is uncertain to understand the stock price for the future. Many investors in the Indian stock market prefer old information about a company to figure out different intrinsic values.

## Conclusion

You may be wondering now how important an intrinsic value can be? These methods are very useful to understand whether there is a higher or lower intrinsic value when compared with the current market price. In simple words, you will know whether a stock is “overvalued” or “undervalued with this method.

You can understand a pertinent margin of safety, and also, the market price comes under the estimated intrinsic value. When there is a cushion between the lower market price and the price from you, it is worth it. It helps you understand how much loss you can suffer if a certain stock doesn’t perform well.

A newbie can find it interesting yet challenging to understand the concept of intrinsic value. However, you need to keep in mind that an intrinsic value is essential to understand if you have a goal to make significant profits within a given period.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

It is essential to determine the intrinsic value because you can know whether you will make profits or losses. Beginners can look for professionals to understand the intrinsic value in the stock market and carry out profitable trades. However, if you are making decisions alone, make sure you use your knowledge and perform trades cautiously.

Here is an example to understand the intrinsic value in the share market.

- You believe that a particular company will perform better in the future as expected because it comes with excellent cash flow options and other strong fundamentals.
- When you found the company worthy of investing in, the trading value was at $10 per share. So now you understand it, DCF. But, first, you got to know the intrinsic value is nearly $15 per share, which is a bargain of $5.
- Suppose you have a 35% margin of safety, then you decide to buy this stock at the $10 value.
- If there is a fall of the intrinsic value by $3 annually after some period, you can save a minimum of $2 using the initial value of DCF. However, you will also be confident about selling it out during the share price fall.

Here are the following three different models helpful to determine intrinsic value.

- Dividend Discount Models
- Residual Income Models
- Discounted Cash Flow Models